Trade-based money laundering (TBML) refers to the process of disguising the proceeds of illegal activities through international trade transactions. It is a complex and sophisticated form of money laundering that involves the exploitation of trade-related financial instruments and trade-related activities to obscure the origin and destination of illicit funds.
Here are some common scenarios that illustrate how trade-based money laundering (TBML) can occur:
It refers to artificially inflating the value of goods or services in a trade transaction to transfer excess amount as illicit funds across borders.
It refers to artificially deflating the value of goods or services in a trade transaction to transfer the difference in value as illicit funds across borders.
It refers to creating multiple invoices for the same goods or services in a trade transaction, with different values, to transfer the difference in value as illicit funds across borders.
In this scenario, a fake invoice is created for goods or services that were never actually traded. The fake invoice is then used to transfer illicit funds across borders.
The exporter or importer declares the wrong commodity or commodity classification for the goods being traded. It allows them to avoid paying the appropriate taxes or tariffs and transfer the savings across borders as illicit funds.
In this scenario, a company exports goods to a shell company that it owns in another country. The shell company then sells the same goods back to the original company at an inflated price. The difference in price is used to transfer illicit funds across borders.
To combat TBML, Intech builds a potential solution i-TBML:
Financial institutions can implement a risk-based approach to identify and mitigate TBML risks. This approach involves assessing the risks associated with a specific transaction or customer and implementing appropriate controls to mitigate those risks.
Financial institutions should conduct thorough due diligence on their customers and the parties involved in trade transactions. It includes verifying the identity of the customer and conducting enhanced due diligence on high-risk customers.
Technology solutions such as artificial intelligence and machine learning can be used to analyse large volumes of trade data to identify suspicious patterns and anomalies.
IDBI Intech offers a specialized module to detect trade based money laundering on a real-time basis, which includes following features:
Trade based money laundering (TBML) and terrorist financing is a process of moving money made from criminal activities for the purpose of disguising its origins and integrating it back into the formal economy. Compliance measures are in plac to combat the effects of Trade Based Money Laundering.
Trade Based Money Laundering works through the following framework: The first is through the use of the financial system; the second involves the physical movement of money (e.g. through the use of cash couriers); and the third is through the physical movement of goods through the trade system.
Our solution to combat Trade Based Money Laundering (TBML) works in terms of detecting risk in the complexity of global trade, reveal hidden relationships between importers and exporters and identify previously unknown money laundering and fraud.
Trade Based Money Laundering (TBML) is based on the following premises: Trade document and commodity risk indicators between the name of the exporting entity and the name of the recipient of the payment; differing prices on invoices and underlying contracts; or discrepancies between the quantity, quality, volume, or value of the actual commodities and their descriptions.
Repeated importation and exportation of the same high-value commodity, known as carousel transactions. Commodities being traded that do not match the business involved. Unusual shipping routes or transshipment points.
Database tools such as real-time price analyses can be used to measure trade misinvoicing risks for various goods categories. Also standardized processess are in place for risk assessment.